At the 19th Conference of the Parties (COP 19) held in Warsaw in 2013, the Parties agreed that they would begin or intensify domestic policy preparations for their „Planned National Contributions“ (INDCs) to this Agreement and that they would communicate in due course before COP21 in Paris in December 2015. These INDCs set out the mitigation commitments that countries are willing to propose for the post-2020 term. This decision can be seen as a major step forward for developing countries, many of which are developing mitigation plans or targets for the first time or communicating at the international level. It also explains why the parties are reluctant to agree on a common format in which these INDCs should be presented or on the type of objectives or measures they should contain. Whether INDCs should only cover reduction or adaptation and financing remains controversial. The parties were also unable to agree on the nature of the contribution to the reduction to be presented, i.e. absolute macroeconomic emission reduction targets, emission intensity targets, climate change measures, etc. Case studies on how countries develop and implement climate policy. The agreement not only reduced emissions, but also established the Clean Development Mechanism for Carbon Trading. This means that countries that did not meet the reduction targets were able to „buy“ the right to emit additional emissions from the budgets of less polluting countries. They could also offset them with measures to combat climate change in developing countries.
„The principle of consensus has failed,“ Ott said. „Fossil fuel countries like Saudi Arabia, the United States, Russia and Australia are blocking any real action. That is why we need a new treaty – a way forward for those states that have a real interest in climate protection. Climate change is a race against time. The Climate Change Performance Index, released today, shows which industrialized countries are leading the way and which are the biggest losers. (10.12.2019) The two largest emitters of greenhouse gases, China and the United States, are both stepping up their emission reduction measures and these measures could have a significant impact on global emissions. In particular, according to the ASSESSMENT OF CAT40 countries, China, the United States and the European Union (which account for about 53% of global emissions) would implement their plans for the post-2020, limiting the increase in global temperature to about 3°C by 2100 – 0.2°C – 0.4°C less than before their announcements. These results represent considerable progress and are more ambitious than previous commitments, but remain insufficient to limit warming to below 2°C. China is also one of the most carbon-rich countries in the world, meaning it has one of the highest levels of CO2 emissions relative to energy consumption. The combination of China`s large, fast-growing economy and carbon intensity means that its policies will be critical to the prospects for global climate change. The growing demand for fresh water, combined with a drier climate in many parts of the world, has increased the demand for desalination plants.
Unfortunately, removing salt from the water produces a toxic salty product that can severely damage ecosystems if not treated properly. Although technological innovations are helping to make this process more environmentally friendly, it is not without risk. The agreement recognises the role of non-stakeholders in the fight against climate change, including cities, other sub-national authorities, civil society, the private sector and others. The additional measures outlined by the US government in June 2013 in „The President`s Climate Action Plan“ (CAP)16 can contribute to the fulfillment of the promise for 2020. . .